How free are students and teachers to express unpopular ideas in public schools and universities? Not free enough, the author suggests. Wading without hesitation into some of the most contentious issues of our times, she investigates battles over a wide range of topics that have fractured school and university communities, homosexuality themed children's books, research on race based intelligence, the teaching of evolution, the regulation of hate speech, and more, and offers insights supported by theory and by practical expertise. Two key questions arise: What ideas should schools and universities teach? And what rights do teachers and students have to disagree with those ideas? The answers are not the same for K-12 schools as they are for public universities. But far from drawing a bright line between them, the author suggests that we must consider public education as a whole to determine how, and how successfully, it deals with conflicting views. When expert opinion clashes with popular belief, which should prevail? How much independence should K-12 teachers have? How do we foster the cutting edge research that makes America a world leader in higher education? What are the free speech rights of students? This work is a discussion about academic goals and agendas in our schools.