The 1873 Modoc War was fierce, bloody, and unjust. This riveting narrative captures the dramatic battles, betrayals, and devastating end, delving into underlying causes and schemes to seize ancestral territory. By April 1870, immigrant demands forced the Modoc onto a crowded, distant reservation with their rivals, the Klamath. Led by a charismatic young chief called Captain Jack, they fled to their original Lost River village. The cavalry countered with a surprise attack on November 29, 1872. Survivors escaped to a natural stone citadel--nearby lava beds--and the most expensive Indian conflict in U.S. history began.